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08 Sapiens – stručná história ľudstva – Debata o knihe. “Konzistentnosť je ihrisko pre tupé mysle”

marko June 20, 2020 722 1


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PODCAST NÁJDEŠ AJ VO SVOJEJ OBĽÚBENEJ APPKE 😉

Zaujímavé pohľady / myšlienky z knihy

V tejto epizóde podcastu sa rozprávame o myšlienkach ktoré nás najviac zaujali z knihy Sapiens – stručná história ľudstva od autora Yuval Noah Harari.

O čom sa budeme rozprávať?

S Peťom rozoberáme tieto témy a rozoberáme tieto citáty:

Na čo sme zmenili názor po prečítaní knihy?

V čom nám zmenila pohľad na život / seba / svet?

Prináša so sebou pokrok šťastnejší život?

Čo je najväčšia výhoda Homo Sapiens oproti ostaným druhom?

“My sme nezdomacnili pšenicu. Ona zdomácnila nás. Zdomácniť pochádza z latiského domus = dom. A kto žije v dome? Nie pšenica. Ale Sapiens… Toto je esencia poľnohospodárskej revolúcie: schopnosť udržať nažive viac ľudí v horších podmienkach.”

„Jedným z mála železných zákonov v histórii je to, že luxus sa stáva nevyhnutnosťou a vytvára nové povinnosti.“

“Bol Neil Armstrong, ktorého stopa ostáva odtlačená na bezveternom mesiaci šťastnejší ako anonymný lovec-zberač ktorý pred 30 000 rokmi odtlačil svoju ruku na stenu jaskyne Chauvet?
Historici si zriedkakedy pokladajú takéto otázky…  Avšak toto sú tie najdôležitejšie otázky ktoré sa môže človek histórie pýtať. ”

“Študujeme históriu neslúži na to aby sme predpovedali budúcnosť ale aby sme si rozšírili obzory. Aby sme pochopili, že prítomnosť nie je ani prirodzená ani nevyhnutná, a teda máme pred sebov viac možností ako si myslíme / predstavujeme.”

Podrobné poznámky k tomuto rozhovoru nájdete tu.

Ďalšie citáty z knihy

“You could never convince a monkey to give you a banana by promising him limitless bananas after death in monkey heaven.”

“The romantic contrast between modern industry that “destroys nature” and our ancestors who “lived in harmony with nature” is groundless. Long before the Industrial Revolution, Homo sapiens held the record among all organisms for driving the most plant and animal species to their extinctions. We have the dubious distinction of being the deadliest species in the annals of life.”

“The capitalist and consumerist ethics are two sides of the same coin, a merger of two commandments. The supreme commandment of the rich is ‘Invest!’ The supreme commandment of the rest of us is ‘Buy!’ The capitalist–consumerist ethic is revolutionary in another respect. Most previous ethical systems presented people with a pretty tough deal. They were promised paradise, but only if they cultivated compassion and tolerance, overcame craving and anger, and restrained their selfish interests. This was too tough for most. The history of ethics is a sad tale of wonderful ideals that nobody can live up to. Most Christians did not imitate Christ, most Buddhists failed to follow Buddha, and most Confucians would have caused Confucius a temper tantrum. In contrast, most people today successfully live up to the capitalist–consumerist ideal. The new ethic promises paradise on condition that the rich remain greedy and spend their time making more money and that the masses give free reign to their cravings and passions and buy more and more. This is the first religion in history whose followers actually do what they are asked to do. How though do we know that we’ll really get paradise in return? We’ve seen it on television.”

 

“Large numbers of strangers can cooperate successfully by believing in common myths. Any large-scale human cooperation – whether a modern state, a medieval church, an ancient city or an archaic tribe – is rooted in common myths that exist only in people’s collective imagination.”

“Consistency is the playground of dull minds.”

 

Kritika

Imagined orders
zdroj: https://www.newenglishreview.org/custpage.cfm?frm=189085&sec_id=189085

People easily understand that ‘primitives’ cement their social order by believing in ghosts and spirits, and gathering each full moon to dance together round the campfire. What we fail to appreciate is that our modern institutions function on exactly the same basis. Take for example the world of business corporations. Modern business-people and lawyers are, in fact, powerful sorcerers (p 31).

Really? He takes the Peugeot motor company, with its image of a lion, and tries to argue that the company itself is no more real than an ancient tribal totem, but nevertheless can form the basis on which large numbers of people could co-operate:

How exactly did Armand Peugeot, the man, create Peugeot, the company? In much the same way that priests and sorcerers have created gods and demons throughout history . . . It all revolved around telling stories, and convincing people to believe them . . . In the case of Peugeot SA the crucial story was the French legal code, as written by the French parliament. According to the French legislators, if a certified lawyer followed all the proper liturgy and rituals, wrote all the required spells and oaths on a wonderfully decorated piece of paper, and affixed his ornate signature to the bottom of the document, then hocus pocus—a new company was formed (p 34).

Harari seems unable to distinguish a belief from a convention, presumably because neither is a material object. Beliefs in ghosts and spirits may be shared by members of particular cultures, but derive from the nature of people’s experience and their modes of thought: they did not sit down and deliberately agree to believe in them. Conventions, however, are precisely the result of a collective decision, consciously taken to achieve a certain purpose, and as such are completely different from myths in almost every respect. Peugeot SA rests on the legal convention of a limited-liability company, which performs a very useful social function, and another very useful social convention is the rule of the road by which in Britain we all drive on the left. Neither beliefs in spirits nor social conventions are material objects, but they are still quite different sorts of thing, as are legal documents and magical rituals, and Harari achieves nothing by confusing them.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

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